December 20, 2013 – Arizona State Capitol

We toured the last home for Arizona’s Territorial government, until Arizona became a state in 1912.  Initially all three branches of the new state government occupied the four floors of the statehouse.  As the state expanded the legislative and executive branches relocated to adjacent buildings and additions; with the judiciary moving somewhat further away although still in Phoenix. State Capitol (b), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20 The 1901 portion of the Capitol is now maintained as the Arizona Capitol Museum with the mission to Connect People to Arizona Government.  State Capitol (Interior ot the Dome from the Third Floor), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

The building is made largely from materials indigenous to Arizona, including malapai, granite and the copper dome.  The design is optimized for the desert climate of Arizona, with thick masonry walls that insulate the interior, skylights, and round “bullseye” clerestory windows to let heat out of the legislative chambers.

The building is topped with a white zinc statue, the Winged Victory of Samothrace, visible through a skylight from within the rotunda.  Her hands hold the torch of liberty and a wreath of victory.  The Winged Victory serves as a weather vane which can rotate a full 360o.

State House (Winged Victory atop Copper Dome), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20The Copper dome underneath Winged Victory wasn’t always made of copper but painted to look like copper.  When the Capitol was restored in the 1970s, the mining industry donated more than 15 tons of copper to create today’s dome.

While the old Senate and Supreme Court chambers are being used as meeting rooms and for other purposes, and were not open to the public, we were able to visit …

Former House Chamber

State Capitol (Old House Chamber from Balcony), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Former Governor’s Office (George P. Hunt, the state’s first governor depicted)

State Capitol (First State Governor's Office - George P. Hunt), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Former Secretary of State’s Office

State Capitol (Old Secretary of State's Office), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Former Mining Inspector’s Office (as well as several other department head offices)

State Capitol (Old Mine Inspector's Office), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Also of interest were state’s seal on the floor of the rotunda

State Capitol (State Seal on Rotunda Floor), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20which is also visible from high above on the fourth floor.

State Capitol (State Seal on Rotunda Floor from Fourth Floor), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20We were able to visit the two, newer adjacent legislative buildings where we saw the current House chamber

State Capitol (Current House Chamber from Balcony), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20and, at the invitation of a current state rep, were able to tour the floor of the House and visit the private state representatives’ lounge;

State Capitol (Current House Lounge), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20as well as the Senate chamber.

State Capitol (Current Senate Chamber from Balcony), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Within the museum, a great deal of space was dedicated to the sinking of the USS Arizona (BB-39) on December 7, 1941 … from its christening in 1915

 State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Christening - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20 State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Christening - b), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

To its in-service history and periodic modernization

Last known photograph of the USS Arizona, taken in January 1941 in Puget Sound Washington

Last known photograph of the USS Arizona, taken in January 1941 in Puget Sound Washington

to films of the attack on Pearl Harbor

USS ARIZONA SINKINGand several displays of recovered artifacts from the sunken ship.

Piece of the USS Arizona’s superstructure

State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Superstructure), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Life ring, Bos’ns whistle and tea pot

 State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Artifacts), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Eight-seven pieces of the USS Arizona’s sterling silver collection

 State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Silver Collection - c), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20 State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Silver Collection - b), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Some pieces coated with a thin layer of copper

Some pieces coated with a thin layer of copper

“Last Man” Champagne Set – designated to be drunk by the last survivor of the Pearl Harbor attackState Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Last Man Standing Champagne Set), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20State Capitol (USS Arizona (BB-39) Last Man Standing Champagne Set), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20ph68Other sections were dedicated to various people who played important, and even anecdotal, roles in the history of the Territory and State (after its admission in February 1912).

London born, Fred Harvey,

State Capitol (Fred Harvey Photo), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20a failed restaurant owner convinced the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway that good food service was key to luring passengers to travel on its line.  In return for providing quality eating houses along the route, the railroad would supple Harvey with free coal, free freight for food and employees and anything else his establishments needed.  To deliver on his end of the bargain, Harvey created a network of inns (including several at the grand Canyon which remain to this day) and the waitresses that became hallmark of quality for the next century, the “Harvey Girls”.

Drewwed in their iconic black dresses and stocking, white bibs and white colors

Dressed in their iconic black dresses and stocking, white bibs and white colors

Reading about them, we learned about the “Code of the Cup”.

State Capitol (CODE OF THE CUP), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20At one time, a Phoenix City ordinance declared it a misdemeanor for any Native American to be in town without “sufficient” clothing. 

State Capitol (PANTS TREE NATIVE AMERICAN), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Then Sheriff Carl Hyden responded by hanging blue jeans on a tree just outside town. A man could don the pants on his way to trade in town, and then return the pants to the tree for the next person’s use. 

State Capitol (Pants Tree - PANTS), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20In this way, the Pima-Maricopa creatively maintained a flourishing trade within the city folk and incurred minimal expense.

Several statues adorn the capitol including one of a Buffalo soldier.

State Capitol (Buffalo Soldier Statue), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20In the fall of 1947, syndicated columnist Drew Pearson descripted an idea to send an American “Friendship” Train filled with food to the starving people of France and Italy.  The idea resulted in 700 loads of food, fuel and clothing being donated by the American people.  Andre Picard, a French railroad worker and war veteran, suggested that France reciprocate,   In 1949, over 250 tons of gifts were sent on the French “Gratitude” Train to American.  The train was an expression of thanks from thousands of grateful French citizens to the people of America.

Arizona’s boxcar arrived on February 17, 1949.  Over the years, the boxcar became known as the “Merci” Train; subsequently abandoned north of Phoenix for many years.  It was later rescued and became an exhibit, a scale model of which, together some of the surviving dresses, paintings, dinnerware and other items are on display in the museum.

State Capitol (Gratitude-Merci Train - Scale Model), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20One of many photos was of Barry Goldwater (former Representative, Senator and 1964 GOP presidential candidate) with his uncle Morris Goldwater, Vice President of the States 1912 Constitutional Convention.

State Capitol (Barry Goldwater with Uncle Morris Goldwater), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20As a student, I had learned about the Gadsden Purchase, which set the current southern borders of Arizona and New Mexico.  However, it was not until today I learned the reason the United States agreed to pay Mexico $10 million for a 29,670 square mile portion of Mexico. Gadsden’s Purchase provided the land necessary for a southern transcontinental railroad and attempted to resolve conflicts that lingered after the Mexican-American War.

Earlier this week, we were overwhelmed with the large number of statues and memorials on the grounds of the Texas State Capitol grounds.  Today, we were equally impressed with the displays Arizona’s Capitol Grounds.

Petrified Wood

State House Grounds (Petrified Wood), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Lt. Frank Luke, Jr., America’s second ranking fighter pilot ace during World War I.  Born in Phoenix in 1897, he was killed while engaged in battle with German forces on February 29, 1918

State House Grounds (Lt. Frank Luke, Jr. Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Arizona’s War Heroes Memorial

State House Grounds (Arizona War Heros Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Crime Victims Memorial

State House Grounds (Crime Victims Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Navajo Code Talker’s Memorial

State House Grounds (Navajo Code Talkers Memorial - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Bushmaster Memorial – dedicated to a Hispanic and Native American unit of the Arizona National Guard which saw heavy combat in the Pacific Theater during World War II … and which General Douglas MacArthur claimed was “the greatest fighting combat team ever deployed in combat”

State House Grounds (Bushmaster Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Arizona Workers Memorial

State House Grounds (Arizona Workers Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Ten Commandments

State House Grounds (Ten Commandments Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Arizona Pioneer Women

State House Grounds (Arizona Poneer Women Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20World War II 4th Marine Division – which fought in the Marshall Islands, Marianas and Iwo Jima

State House Grounds (4th Marine Division Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Civilian Conservation Corps Memorial

State House Grounds (Civilian Conservation Corps Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20World War I Veteran Memorial

State House Grounds (World War I Veterans Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Law Enforcement Memorial

State House Grounds (Law Enforcement Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20World War II Jewish War Veterans Memorial

State House Grounds (Jewish War Veterans Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Civil War Confederate Troops Memorial

State House Grounds (Civil War Confederate Troops Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial

State House Grounds (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Armenian Holocaust Memorial

State House Grounds (Armenian Holocaust Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Desert Storm Memorial

State House Grounds (Desert Storm Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Memorial Moving Memories of 9-11 MemorialState House Grounds (9-11 Memorial - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Fragment from the World Trade Center

Fragment from the World Trade Center

Enduring Freedom

 State House Grounds (Enduring Freedom Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Korean War Memorial

 State House Grounds (Korean War Memorial - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20State House Grounds (Korean War Memorial - b), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Vietnam Veterans Memorial

State House Grounds (Vietnam Veterans Memorial - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20State House Grounds (Vietnam Veterans Memorial - c), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Purple Heart Memorial

State House Grounds (Purple Heart Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Arizona Law Enforcement K9 Memorial

State House Grounds (Law Enforcement Canine Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Father Francisco Kino, a Spanish Jesuit missionary, explorer, cattleman, mapmaker and defender of the frontier who became affectionately known as the “Padre on Horseback”

State House Grounds (Father Francisco Kino), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Arizona Peace Officers Memorial

State House Grounds (Arizona Peace Officers Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20American Merchant Seamen Memorial

State House Grounds (Merchant Marine Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20Battle of the Bulge/Ardennes Veterans Memorial

 State House Grounds (World War II Veterans Memorial), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

Bill of Rights Monument

State House Grounds (Bill of Rights Memorial - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

First Amednment

First Amendment

USS Arizona Mast – upper 26’ of the signal mast, or “pig stick”

State House Grounds (USS Arizona (B-39) Mast), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20USS Arizona Anchor Memorial – with the names of each crew member lost on the plaques around the base of the monument

 State House Grounds (USS Arizona (B-39) Anchor), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

USS Arizona Memorial to the Fallen – there are nine sets of vertical steel pillars represent the nine minutes from the time the fatal bomb the Arizona until the ship sank.  Between each of the pillars are swinging name plaques memorializing each crew member lost when the ship was attacked and sank (almost one half of the deaths on December 7, 1941 were lost aboard the USS Arizona

State House Grounds (USS Arizona (B-39) Memorial to the Fallen - a), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20State House Grounds (USS Arizona (B-39) Mast and Memorial to the Fallen - Names), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20 World War II Battleship Guns Memorial – from the ships symbolic of the beginning of World War II and its final victory … the USS Arizona (BB-39) and the USS Missouri (BB-63) where the Japanese surrender took place

 State House Grounds (Guns to Salute the Fallen - 14'' from USS Arizona (BB-39)), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20USS Arizona’s 14” Barrel Gun

State House Grounds (Guns to Salute the Fallen - 14'' Shell from USS Arizona (BB-39)), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-2014: Shell (14” diameter – 56 ¼” length – weight 1,400 lbs – Range 20.45 miles – Rate of fire 1.5 rounds per minute – Charge: 365 lbs – Penetration: 30 feet of reinforced concrete)

 

State House Grounds (Guns to Salute the Fallen - 16'' from USS Mossouri (BB-63)), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20USS Missouri 16” Barrel Gun

State House Grounds (Guns to Salute the Fallen - 16'' Shell from USS Mossouri (BB-63)), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-2014: Shell (16” diameter – 72” length – weight 2,700 lbs – Range 23.64 miles – Rate of fire 2 rounds per minute – Charge: 655 lbs – Power Shell Distance: 23 miles in 50 seconds)

 State House Grounds (Guns to Salute the Fallen), Phoenix, AZ - 2013-12-20

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